Table of contents


16 min read

Long-Term Effects of Anxiety: Physical, Cognitive, & Emotional

Written by Klarity Editorial Team

Published: Dec 28, 2023

Medically Reviewed by Dr. Zoe Russell

Table of contents

Are you tired of living under the cloud of anxiety disorder? Do you often find yourself wondering how your condition is affecting not only your day-to-day life but also your long-term well-being? If so, you’re not alone. Anxiety is a common mental health disorder that can cast a long and daunting shadow over your life. 

In this blog post, we discuss the lasting impacts of anxiety on your physical health, cognitive abilities, and emotional well-being. But, more importantly, we’ll provide you with valuable insights and a clear path forward to prevent these effects and regain control of your life.

Your well-being matters, and we’re here to guide you every step of the way. Find a provider on Klarity today and let’s reclaim your future from anxiety together.

Short-Term Physical Effects of Anxiety

Anxiety disorder can be a physical experience that leaves you breathless, jittery, and overwhelmed. Before we explore the long-term consequences of an anxiety attack, it’s essential to understand the more immediate physical symptoms that anxiety can bring. Physical effects are the body’s instinctive reactions to stress, often described as the “fight or flight” response.

One of the most noticeable short-term effects of anxiety is a racing heart. When individuals develop anxiety disorders, your body’s sympathetic nervous system kicks into high gear, causing your heart to beat faster. This response is designed to prepare you for action, but when it persists, it can leave you feeling on edge and exhausted. Shaking or trembling hands and limbs can be another common physical response to anxiety, a result of increased muscle tension and heightened alertness, which are part of the body’s preparation for dealing with a perceived threat.

Anxiety can also trigger excessive sweating, even in relatively cool conditions, as your body’s way of regulating temperature. However, constant sweating can be uncomfortable and lead to self-consciousness and added stress. Your digestive system can also be affected by anxiety, leading to nausea, indigestion, or diarrhea. These discomforts can further contribute to the overall sense of unease.

Long-Term Physical Effects of Anxiety

Anxiety isn’t just a temporary feeling of worry or fear; it can have lasting impacts on your overall physical and mental health. The licensed providers on Klarity understand the importance of addressing anxiety for immediate relief and also to prevent long-term consequences. Let’s discuss the various ways anxiety disorders can affect your body and mind over time, offering practical steps that you can take for managing these effects.

Cardiovascular Issues

Persistent anxiety has a direct impact on your heart health. When you’re anxious, your body’s fight-or-flight response is activated, leading to an increased heart rate and higher blood pressure. Over time, these responses can put strain on your cardiovascular system, leading to increased risk of hypertension (high blood pressure) and accelerated progression of heart disease. Regular monitoring and managing anxiety disorders is essential to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system.

Immune System Dysfunction

Anxiety’s effect on the immune system is a prime example of the mind-body connection. Chronic stress and anxiety can disrupt the immune system’s ability to fight off antigens, making the body more prone to infections. The stress response hormone cortisol can suppress the immune system’s effectiveness by lowering the number of lymphocytes, leading to more frequent colds, infections, and a slower healing process. Keeping anxiety in check is crucial for a robust immune system.

Gastrointestinal Problems

Anxiety can have a negative effect on your digestive system, causing an array of gastrointestinal issues, ranging from stomach aches and nausea to more severe conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This happens because your gastrointestinal tract is sensitive to emotion. Chronic anxiety and stress can exacerbate symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders and digestive issues, including heartburn and indigestion, and in some cases, may even be a contributing factor to their development.

Sleep Disturbances and Chronic Fatigue

Individuals with excessive anxiety can find it challenging to fall asleep or stay asleep through the night. This lack of restful sleep leads to chronic fatigue, affecting both cognitive functions and physical health. Over time, poor sleep quality can contribute to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Addressing anxiety is a crucial step in improving sleep quality and overall health.

Muscle Tension & Chronic Pain

Having anxiety can lead to physical symptoms, such as muscle tension and pain. When anxious, the body naturally tenses up, and prolonged chronic anxiety disorders can cause muscles to not relax. This constant state of tension can lead to chronic pain, especially in areas like the back and neck. Over time, muscle tension and chronic pain can result in musculoskeletal disorders and significantly affect your quality of life, so be sure to try and relax your muscles or stretch.

Heart Disease

The link between anxiety and heart disease is a critical concern for people and their medical providers. The constant state of stress triggered by prolonged anxiety puts an extra burden on the heart, which can lead to several serious heart conditions like chest pain or heart palpitations. This stress can cause changes in the way blood clots, increasing your risk of heart attacks. It’s vital to manage anxiety not only for mental well-being but also to protect heart health.

Weight Fluctuations

Anxiety can significantly impact your eating habits and metabolism, leading to weight fluctuations. For some, anxiety leads to a loss of appetite or unhealthy eating patterns, resulting in weight loss. For others, it can cause overeating or seeking comfort in high-calorie foods, leading to weight gain. These fluctuations can have broader health implications, potentially causing obesity or malnutrition.

Frequent Migraines

Stress and anxiety are significant triggers for migraines and other types of headaches. The chemicals released by the body during anxiety can provoke vascular changes that can lead to migraines. Additionally, the heightened sensitivity to stress in individuals with anxiety can make them more prone to frequent headaches, significantly impacting their daily life. Managing stress response and anxiety is a key component in reducing the frequency and severity of migraines.

Cognitive Effects of Anxiety

The impact of anxiety extends well beyond immediate emotional responses by affecting a person’s cognitive functions. When we talk about the cognitive effects of anxiety, we are referring to how it influences your thought processes, memory, attention, and decision-making abilities. 

Prolonged anxiety can cloud the mind, making it challenging to concentrate, recall information, or make clear decisions. This can lead to decreased productivity and efficiency in personal and professional settings. Understanding and addressing these cognitive effects is crucial for those struggling with anxiety, as it helps in regaining control over mental faculties and improving overall quality of life.

Memory Impairment

Anxiety’s impact on memory is an often overlooked aspect of cognitive health. When you’re anxious, your mind is frequently overwhelmed with worries and fears, which can interfere with forming new memories. This means that while you’re preoccupied with anxious thoughts, your brain struggles to store and process new information effectively. As a result, both short-term and long-term memory may be affected. 

Memory impairment caused by anxiety can manifest as forgetfulness in daily activities or difficulty remembering important information. Long-term anxiety can even affect the brain’s structure and function, potentially leading to more severe memory issues over time.

Difficulty Concentrating

When you’re constantly feeling anxious, your mind is in a state of heightened alertness, scanning for potential threats and making it challenging to focus on the task at hand. Difficulty concentrating can be particularly detrimental in environments that require sustained attention, such as work or school. Tasks that once seemed straightforward can become overwhelming, and productivity can decrease as a result. The inability to concentrate can also lead to feelings of frustration and inadequacy, further exacerbating the anxiety.

Decision-Making Challenges

Anxiety can also impede your decision-making abilities if its symptoms are left untreated. When you’re anxious, your mind is flooded with worries and worst-case scenarios, making it difficult to evaluate options and make clear, rational decisions. This heightened state of worry can lead to indecision, where even simple choices can feel daunting. 

In some cases, anxiety can cause individuals to make hasty, impulsive decisions without fully considering the consequences. Over time, this can affect personal and professional life, leading to a cycle of anxiety and poor decision-making. Learning to manage anxiety is crucial for restoring the ability to make sound decisions.

Emotional and Psychological Effects of Anxiety

The emotional and psychological effects of anxiety influence not just how we feel but fundamentally alter our perception of the world around us. Anxiety is a complex condition that can shape our thoughts, behaviors, and interactions with others. It can manifest as persistent worry, heightened irritability, or a pervasive sense of unease that colors every aspect of life. 

The psychological footprint of anxiety can lead to long-term mood disorders, alter our behavioral patterns, and deeply impact our social interactions and relationships. Recognizing and addressing these emotional and psychological effects is critical for individuals grappling with anxiety.

Mood Disorders

The link between long-term anxiety and the development of other mood disorders like depression is a critical aspect of mental health. Chronic anxiety creates a persistent state of worry and tension, which can disrupt the brain’s chemical balance and the pathways that regulate mood. 

Over time, this imbalance can evolve into more severe mood disorders. Individuals with prolonged anxiety may experience sustained periods of sadness or hopelessness, characteristic of depression. The interplay between anxiety and mood disorders can create a complex mental health landscape, where one condition may exacerbate the symptoms of the other, necessitating different anxiety treatment approaches.

Changes in Behavior

Anxiety can bring about significant changes in an individual that may manifest as avoidance behaviors, where a person steers clear of situations or activities that they perceive as anxiety-inducing. Additionally, anxiety can lead to increased irritability and restlessness, making individuals more prone to agitation or quick to anger. These behavioral changes are often a direct response to the constant internal stress that anxiety creates, and they can be distressing to both the individuals and to those around them.

Impact on Relationships

Anxiety can strain personal and professional relationships, causing individuals to misinterpret social cues, leading to misunderstandings and conflicts. This can affect teamwork and communication in a professional setting, potentially impacting job performance and career progression. In personal relationships, anxiety can lead to excessive worry about relationship dynamics, causing tension and strain. 

Social Withdrawal

One of the more visible impacts of anxiety is social withdrawal. Individuals with anxiety may find social interactions overwhelming, leading them to avoid gatherings, public places, or even intimate settings with friends and family. This avoidance is often a coping mechanism to prevent triggering anxiety symptoms. 

However, social withdrawal can lead to a cycle of isolation and loneliness, exacerbating the symptoms of anxiety and impacting overall mental health. Reconnecting with social support networks and engaging in therapeutic strategies can be beneficial in addressing this aspect of anxiety.

Why wait to prioritize your mental health? Get started toward a happier, healthier life on Klarity now.

How to Prevent Long-Term Effects of Anxiety on the Body

Preventing the long-term effects of anxiety on the body is an essential aspect of maintaining your overall health and well-being. If left unchecked, severe anxiety can have far-reaching consequences, influencing physical health and causing serious health issues like panic attacks or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

It’s important to understand and implement strategies that can mitigate these potential impacts on your physical health. This involves recognizing early signs of anxiety, seeking appropriate medical and therapeutic interventions, and adopting lifestyle changes that support mental and physical health. By proactively addressing anxiety, individuals can reduce the risk of chronic health problems, enhance their quality of life, and foster resilience against the stresses of daily life.

Recognize Early Signs of Anxiety

Early detection of anxiety is key in preventing its escalation and mitigating long-term effects. Recognizing early warning signs involves being aware of both physical and emotional symptoms you may be experiencing. Physical signs include restlessness, increased heart rate, and muscle tension, while emotional symptoms may encompass feelings of dread, excessive worry, and irritability.

Being attuned to these early indicators allows for prompt intervention, which can significantly reduce the severity and impact of anxiety over time. Awareness and education about these signs are crucial, for individuals and their families to foster a supportive environment for addressing mental health concerns.

Get Prescribed Medication

Consulting with healthcare providers and therapists on Klarity for anxiety treatment, is an important step in managing your anxiety disorder. Medications such as antidepressants, beta-blockers, or anxiolytics can be effective in reducing the physical and emotional symptoms of anxiety. 

Each individual’s experience with anxiety is unique, and therefore, medication needs to be tailored to suit specific needs and conditions. It’s essential to have open and honest communication with your healthcare provider about the effects of the medication and any side effects you may be experiencing. Medication can be integral to a comprehensive treatment plan, especially when combined with other therapies and lifestyle changes.

Try Anxiety Therapy

Therapies like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are highly effective in treating anxiety. CBT works by helping individuals identify and challenge negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to anxiety. It provides tools and strategies for coping with anxiety in everyday situations, thereby reducing its impact on daily life. 

Other therapeutic approaches, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction or exposure therapy, can also be beneficial depending on the individual’s circumstances. Engaging in therapy, whether in-person or online tele therapy, can lead to long-term benefits, including improved mental health, enhanced coping skills, and a better understanding of how to manage anxiety triggers. 

Treat Anxiety and Avoid Long-Term Effects on Klarity

Klarity stands out as a leading platform that bridges the gap between individuals suffering from anxiety and specialized healthcare providers. By facilitating access to these experienced professionals on Klarity,it’s easier for anyone to seek the help they need to manage and treat anxiety effectively.

Providers on Klarity are also able to assist patients suffering from other symptoms of anxiety and health issues like obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and more. Take control of your life and find a provider on Klarity today!


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Leonard, Jayne, “What does anxiety feel like, and how does it affect the body?” Medical News Today,

Meers, Zach, “Long Term Effects Of Stress And Anxiety,” Pathways Psychology Services,

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